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Most Asked Java Interview Questions

Here Some Most important Java interview questions along with brief answers and examples

* Top 10 Most Asking Program In Interview Questions With Answers AT THE BOTTOM *

1. What is Java?

   - Java is a high-level, object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. It's known for its platform independence due to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

2. What is the difference between JDK, JRE, and JVM?

   - JDK (Java Development Kit) includes tools for developing Java applications.

   - JRE (Java Runtime Environment) allows you to run Java applications.

   - JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is the runtime environment for executing Java bytecode.

3. What are the key features of Java?

   - Some key features of Java include platform independence, object-oriented programming, automatic memory management (garbage collection), and exception handling.

4. Explain the main components of a Java program.

   - A Java program consists of classes, methods, fields, and statements. Here's a simple example:


   public class HelloWorld {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        System.out.println("Hello, World!");




5. What is the difference between == and .equals() for comparing strings?

   - == compares the reference of string objects, while

.equals() compares their content. Example:


   String str1 = new String("Hello");

   String str2 = new String("Hello");

   System.out.println(str1 == str2); // false

   System.out.println(str1.equals(str2)); // true


6. What is a constructor in Java?

   - A constructor is a special method that initializes an object. It has the same name as the class and is called when an object is created. Example:


   public class Person {

    String name;

    public Person(String name) { = name;




7. Explain the difference between an interface and an abstract class.

   - An interface in Java defines a contract for classes to implement, while an abstract class can have some concrete methods. Example:


   interface Shape {

    double area();


   abstract class Quadrilateral {

    abstract double calculateArea();



8. What is the purpose of the final keyword in Java?

   - The final keyword can be applied to variables, methods, and classes. It makes them unchangeable. For example, a

final variable cannot be reassigned.

9. Explain the concept of multithreading in Java.

   - Multithreading is the ability of a CPU or a single core in a multi-core processor to provide multiple threads of execution concurrently. Java supports multithreading with the Thread class or implementing the Runnable interface.

10. What is an exception in Java, and how do you handle it?

- An exception is an event that can disrupt the normal flow of a program. In Java, exceptions are handled using


blocks. Example:


try {

     int result = 5 / 0; // This will throw an ArithmeticException

} catch (ArithmeticException e) {

     System.out.println("Error: " + e.getMessage());



11. What is method overloading in Java?

- Method overloading is when multiple methods in the same class have the same name but different parameters. The compiler determines which method to invoke based on the number or type of arguments. Example:


public int add(int a, int b) {

     return a + b;


public double add(double a, double b) {

     return a + b;


12. Explain the concept of method overriding.

- Method overriding occurs when a subclass provides a specific implementation for a method that is already defined in its superclass. The overridden method in the subclass should have the same method signature. Example:


class Animal {

     void makeSound() {

         System.out.println("Some sound");



class Dog extends Animal {


     void makeSound() {




13. What is a static method in Java?

- A static method belongs to the class rather than any specific instance of the class. You can call a static method on the class itself, without creating an object. Example:


public class MathUtil {

     public static int add(int a, int b) {

         return a + b;



// Call the static method

int result = MathUtil.add(5, 3);

14. What is the super keyword in Java?

- The super keyword is used to refer to the superclass (parent class) in Java. It can be used to call the superclass constructor or access superclass methods and variables. Example:


class Parent {

     int x = 10;


class Child extends Parent {

     int x = 20;

     void display() {

         System.out.println(super.x); // Access the parent class variable




15. What is the purpose of the this keyword in Java?

- The this keyword is used to refer to the current instance of the class. It can be used to differentiate between instance variables and method parameters with the same name. Example:


class Person {

     String name;

     Person(String name) {
 = name; // "this" refers to the instance variable



16. What is a lambda expression in Java?

- A lambda expression is an anonymous function that allows you to define a concise way of representing a single method interface (functional interface). Example:


// Using a lambda expression to define a runnable task

Runnable task = () -> {

     System.out.println("Hello from a lambda expression!");


17. What is the difference between ArrayList and LinkedList ?

- ArrayList and LinkedList are both implementations of the Lis tinterface. The main difference is that ArrayList

uses a dynamic array to store elements, while

LinkedList uses a doubly-linked list.

18. Explain the finalize method in Java.

- The finalize method is a method in the Object

class that you can override in your classes. It's called by the garbage collector before reclaiming the memory occupied by an object. It allows you to perform cleanup operations. Example:


public class Resource {

     // ...

     protected void finalize() {

         // Cleanup code here



19. What are checked and unchecked exceptions in Java?

- Checked exceptions are exceptions that are checked at compile time and must be either caught using a

try-catch block or declared using the throws

keyword. Unchecked exceptions, on the other hand, are not checked at compile time and include and its



20. Explain the difference between StringBuffer and


- Both StringBuffer and StringBuilde are used to create and manipulate strings. The main difference is that

StringBuffer is synchronized and thread-safe, while

StringBuilder is not synchronized and faster for single-threaded operations.

Certainly, here are more Java interview questions and answers:

21. What is the difference between HashMap

and HashTable in Java?

- HashMap is not synchronized and allows null values, ewhereas HashTable is synchronized and does not allow null keys or values.

22. Explain the concept of object serialization in Java.

- Serialization is the process of converting an object into a byte stream so that it can be saved to a file, sent over a network, or stored in a database. This is often used for data persistence.

23. What is the equals and hashCode contract in Java?

- In Java, if you override the equals

method in a class, you should also override the hashCode method. The hashCode method returns a unique integer for each object, which is used in hash-based collections like HashMap to retrieve values efficiently.

24. What is the purpose of the transient keyword in Java?

- The transient keyword is used to indicate that a variable should not be serialized when an object is converted into a byte stream. It's often used for variables that are not relevant for persistence.


25. Explain the use of the try-with-resources statement in Java.

- try-with-resources is used for automatic resource management, such as file streams or database connections. It ensures that resources are closed properly, even if an exception is thrown.

26. What is a Java annotation, and how are they used?

- Annotations are metadata that provide information about the code. They are used to add descriptive information or behavior to classes, methods, fields, or other program elements. Examples include

@Override,@Deprecated , and custom annotations.

27. What is the difference between == and .equals() for object comparison?

-== compares object references, while .equals()

compares the content or value of objects. You can override the .equals() method to define custom comparison logic for your objects.

28. Explain the Singleton design pattern in Java.

- The Singleton pattern ensures that a class has only one instance and provides a global point of access to that instance. It involves a private constructor and a static method to get the unique instance.

29. What is garbage collection in Java?

- Garbage collection is the process by which the Java Virtual Machine automatically reclaims memory occupied by objects that are no longer reachable or in use. It helps manage memory and prevent memory leaks.


30. What is the compareTo method in Java, and when is it used?

- The compareTo method is used for comparing objects in order to establish a natural ordering. It's commonly used with classes that implement the

Comparable interface, such as sorting elements in a collection.

31. What is the difference between the throw and throws keywords in Java?

- throw is used to explicitly throw an exception in your code, while throws is used in method declarations to indicate that the method may throw specific exceptions and should be handled by the caller or higher-level methods.

32. Explain the volatile keyword in Java.

- The volatile keyword is used to indicate that a variable's value may be changed by multiple threads simultaneously. It ensures that any read or write to the variable is visible to all threads.

33. What is the difference between String ,StringBuffer , and StringBuilder ?

- String is immutable, StringBuffer is synchronized and mutable, and StringBuilder is not synchronized and mutable. Use String for immutability and

StringBuffer or StringBuilder for dynamic string manipulation.

34. What is a Java package, and why is it used?

- A package is a way to organize related classes and interfaces. It helps in preventing naming conflicts and provides a hierarchical structure to manage and access classes more efficiently.


35. Explain the instanceof operator in Java.

- The instanceof operator is used to check if an object is an instance of a specific class or interface. It returns a boolean value. Example:


if (myObject instanceof MyClass) {

     // Perform specific actions for objects of MyClass


36. What is method chaining in Java?

- Method chaining, also known as "fluent interfaces," involves calling multiple methods on an object in a single line, which enhances code readability. It returns the object itself after each method call. Example:


StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();

sb.append("Hello").append(" ").append("World");

37. Explain the difference between public , private ,protected , and package-private access modifiers in Java.

- public allows access from any class.

  - private restricts access to the defining class.

  - protected allows access within the same package or  by subclasses.

- Package-private (no modifier) allows access within the same package.

38. What is the purpose of the default method in Java 8 interfaces?

- In Java 8, interfaces can have default methods that provide a default implementation. This allows adding new methods to interfaces without breaking existing classes that implement them.


39. Explain the difference between synchronized

and concurrent collections in Java.

- synchronized collections are thread-safe but can lead to performance bottlenecks. Concurrent collections are designed for concurrent access and are often more efficient in multi-threaded scenarios.

40. What is the var keyword in Java, and when was it introduced?

- The var keyword, introduced in Java 10, allows type inference for local variables. It reduces verbosity and simplifies code when the type can be inferred from the variable's initialization.

👉 Top Most Asking Java interview program Code

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