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Manual Testing Interview Questions

Top 50  manual testing interview questions, along with answers and examples:

1. What is manual testing, and why is it important in software development?

   - Answer: Manual testing is a type of testing where testers manually execute test cases without using automation tools. It is crucial to ensure the quality and functionality of software.

2. What are the key stages of the software testing life cycle (STLC)?

   - Answer: The STLC typically includes stages like requirement analysis, test planning, test design, test execution, defect reporting, and test closure.

3. What is the difference between functional testing and non-functional testing?

   - Answer: Functional testing checks if the software functions as intended, while non-functional testing assesses non-functional aspects like performance, usability, and security.

4. Explain the difference between verification and validation in testing.

   - Answer: Verification ensures that the software is built correctly, while validation ensures that the right software is built. For example, verifying that the login button is present is different from validating that it works correctly.

5. What is a test case, and can you provide an example of a test case for a login page?

   - Answer: A test case is a set of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected outcomes. For a login page, a test case might involve entering valid credentials, clicking the login button, and verifying successful login.

6. What is regression testing, and why is it important in the testing process?

   - Answer: Regression testing involves retesting the software after a change to ensure that the changes do not introduce new defects. It's crucial to maintain the integrity of the software.

7. How do you prioritize test cases when there is limited time for testing?

   - Answer: Test cases can be prioritized based on business impact, critical functionality, risk assessment, or frequently used features to ensure the most important areas are covered.

8. What is smoke testing, and when is it performed in the testing cycle?

   - Answer: Smoke testing is a basic test to verify that the most critical functions of the software work. It is performed before detailed testing and helps identify major issues early in the testing cycle.

9. Can you explain the difference between black-box testing and white-box testing?

   - Answer: Black-box testing focuses on testing the software's functionality without considering internal code. White-box testing involves testing based on the internal code structure.

10. How do you report and document defects found during testing?

   - Answer: Defects are typically documented with details like the issue description, steps to reproduce, expected behavior, actual behavior, and severity. A defect tracking system or tool is often used to manage and track defects.

Certainly, here are 10 more manual testing interview questions with answers and examples:

11. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?

   - Answer: Smoke testing checks the basic functionality to ensure the software build is stable, while sanity testing verifies specific aspects of the software after a minor change. For example, after a bug fix, you'd perform sanity testing on the related functionality.

12. What is exploratory testing, and when is it used?

   - Answer: Exploratory testing is an unscripted approach where testers explore the software, simultaneously designing and executing test cases. It's often used when there are no formal test cases or to uncover unexpected defects.

13. How do you perform compatibility testing for a web application, and why is it essential?

   - Answer: Compatibility testing involves verifying that a web application works on various browsers, devices, and operating systems. Testers should check the application's functionality, layout, and performance on different platforms.

14. What is ad-hoc testing, and when is it applied in manual testing?

   - Answer: Ad-hoc testing is informal testing without predefined test cases. Testers use their domain knowledge to find defects. It's often used in the early stages of testing to identify potential issues quickly.

15. Can you explain the concept of boundary value analysis and provide an example?

   - Answer: Boundary value analysis focuses on testing values near the boundaries of input ranges. For example, if you're testing a system that accepts input between 1 and 10, you'd test inputs like 1, 10, and 5 to uncover potential boundary-related issues.

16. What is the purpose of a test plan in manual testing, and what information should it include?

   - Answer: A test plan provides a comprehensive outline of the testing approach, scope, resources, and schedule. It should include objectives, test environments, entry/exit criteria, and roles and responsibilities.

17. How do you identify test data and create test scenarios for a given feature?

   - Answer: Test data can be identified based on input requirements, boundary values, and domain knowledge. Test scenarios are created by combining test data with test cases to simulate real-world usage.

18. What are the main challenges in manual testing, and how can they be mitigated?

   - Answer: Challenges include the potential for human error and subjectivity. To mitigate these, clear test documentation, proper training, and effective communication among the testing team are crucial.

19. How do you decide when to stop testing for a given feature or project?

   - Answer: Testing can be stopped when the testing objectives are met, critical defects are resolved, and the exit criteria defined in the test plan are satisfied.

20. Can you provide an example of a positive and a negative test case for a login functionality?

   - Answer: Positive test case: Enter valid username and password, click the login button, and verify successful login. Negative test case: Enter an invalid username or password, click the login button, and verify an appropriate error message is displayed.

21. What is the purpose of test documentation, and what types of documents are commonly used in manual testing?

   - Answer: Test documentation helps in planning, executing, and reporting test activities. Common documents include the Test Plan, Test Cases, Test Scripts, and Test Summary Report.

22. Explain the difference between positive and negative testing, and provide examples for both.

   - Answer: Positive testing verifies that the system functions as expected under valid inputs, while negative testing tests for how the system handles invalid or unexpected inputs. For example, positive testing might involve entering a valid email address, while negative testing would test with an invalid or malformed email.

23. What is usability testing, and how do you conduct usability tests for a website or software application?

   - Answer: Usability testing assesses the software's user-friendliness and user experience. Testers can conduct usability tests by observing users as they interact with the software, recording their feedback, and identifying areas where the software can be improved for ease of use.

24. How do you determine the severity and priority of a defect, and can you provide an example of a defect with different severity and priority levels?

   - Answer: Severity represents the impact of a defect on the system, while priority reflects the urgency of fixing it. For example, a spelling mistake in a non-critical area might have low severity but high priority if it affects the software's reputation.

25. What is a test environment, and why is it important in manual testing?

   - Answer: A test environment is a setup where testing activities occur. It's important to replicate the production environment to ensure accurate testing. For example, testing a web application in a production-like server configuration.

26. Can you explain the concept of a test harness in manual testing, and why is it used?

   - Answer: A test harness is a collection of software and test data used to automate testing. It's used to create automated test scripts and execute tests, making it more efficient for repetitive testing tasks.

27. How do you ensure traceability between test cases and requirements, and why is it important in testing?

   - Answer: Traceability matrices are used to link test cases to specific requirements. This ensures that all requirements are tested, and it helps track the coverage of test cases for better test management.

28. What are the key principles of good bug reporting, and can you provide an example of a well-structured bug report?

   - Answer: Good bug reports should be clear, concise, reproducible, and include details like steps to reproduce, expected behavior, and actual behavior. An example might be: "Bug Title: Incorrect Calculation - Steps to Reproduce: 1. Go to the 'Calculator' page. 2. Enter '5 + 3'. 3. Press the 'Equals' button. - Expected Behavior: The result should be '8'. - Actual Behavior: The result is '7'."

29. What is a test exit criteria, and when is it used in the testing process?

   - Answer: Test exit criteria define the conditions that must be met to complete testing for a project or test phase. It's used to determine when testing can be concluded, and the software is ready for release.

30. How do you ensure test cases are maintainable and reusable in manual testing?

   - Answer: To ensure maintainability and reusability, test cases should be well-documented, organized in a structured manner, and reviewed periodically to update them as needed.

Certainly, here are 10 more manual testing interview questions with answers and examples:

31. What is a test data and test scenario? Can you provide an example of each?

   - Answer: Test data is the input data required to execute a test case, while a test scenario is a combination of test cases that together achieve a specific testing objective. For example, in testing an e-commerce website, test data could be a valid credit card number, and a test scenario could involve multiple test cases to test the checkout process, including adding items to the cart, entering shipping details, and making a payment.

32. What is the purpose of a test summary report (TSR) in manual testing, and what information should it include?

   - Answer: A test summary report is a document that summarizes the testing activities and results. It should include details like the test objectives, test environment, test execution results, defect summary, and recommendations for further action.

33. How do you ensure test coverage in manual testing, and why is it important?

   - Answer: Test coverage ensures that all aspects of the software are tested. It's important to identify areas that have not been tested and to minimize the risk of undiscovered defects.

34. Can you explain the concept of positive and negative path testing and provide an example for each?

   - Answer: Positive path testing verifies the expected behavior of valid inputs, while negative path testing checks the system's response to invalid inputs. For example, positive path testing for a login page verifies that a valid username and password result in a successful login, while negative path testing would involve testing with invalid or blank inputs to ensure appropriate error messages are displayed.

35. What is equivalence partitioning, and how is it used in test case design?

   - Answer: Equivalence partitioning is a test design technique that divides the input domain into partitions and selects representative test cases from each partition. For example, when testing an age field, partitions might include values below the minimum age, within the valid range, and above the maximum age.

36. How do you ensure that a software application is user-friendly through manual testing?

   - Answer: User-friendly testing involves assessing the software's ease of use and user experience. Testers can use heuristic evaluation, usability surveys, and user feedback to identify and address usability issues.

37. Can you explain the purpose of smoke testing, and provide an example where it would be beneficial?

   - Answer: Smoke testing is a preliminary test to ensure the critical functionality of the software is working. For a mobile application, smoke testing might involve checking if the app can launch successfully and navigate between its main features.

38. What is compatibility testing, and why is it important in manual testing?

   - Answer: Compatibility testing checks whether the software functions correctly on different platforms, browsers, and devices. It's essential to ensure that the software caters to a wide user base.

39. How do you handle test environment issues, such as resource unavailability or network problems, during manual testing?

   - Answer: Test environment issues can disrupt testing. Testers should communicate the issues to the project team, attempt to work around the problems, or reschedule testing when the environment is stable.

40. What is the purpose of a test case review, and what aspects should be considered during a review process?

   - Answer: Test case reviews ensure that test cases are of high quality and adhere to test design standards. Aspects to consider during a review include test case coverage, correctness, clarity, and adherence to requirements.

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