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Quality Assurance Interview Questions

  1. What is Quality Assurance (QA)?

    • Answer: QA is a systematic process of ensuring that a product or service meets specified quality standards. It involves planning, executing, and monitoring activities to prevent defects.

  2. What is the difference between QA and QC (Quality Control)?

    • Answer: QA is process-oriented and focused on preventing defects, while QC is product-oriented and focused on identifying and correcting defects.

  3. What is a test case?

    • Answer: A test case is a set of conditions or steps that defines how a particular feature or functionality should be tested. It includes inputs, expected outputs, and execution steps.

  4. What is the importance of test documentation in QA?

    • Answer: Test documentation ensures traceability, repeatability, and transparency of testing activities. It helps in tracking test progress and identifying issues.

  5. Explain the concept of regression testing.

    • Answer: Regression testing is the process of retesting an application to ensure that new code changes have not adversely affected existing functionality.

  6. What is a bug/defect?

    • Answer: A bug or defect is a deviation from the expected behavior in a software application. It can be a functional, cosmetic, or performance issue.

  7. How do you prioritize test cases?

    • Answer: Test cases are prioritized based on factors like criticality, risk, business impact, and frequently used features.

  8. What is the difference between smoke testing and sanity testing?

    • Answer: Smoke testing is a basic test to check if the application is stable enough for further testing, while sanity testing verifies specific functionalities after code changes.

  9. What is the V-model in software testing?

    • Answer: The V-model is a software development and testing approach where each development phase is associated with a corresponding testing phase.

  10. Explain the concept of a test plan.

    • Answer: A test plan is a comprehensive document that outlines the scope, objectives, resources, schedule, and approach for testing a software project.

  11. What is automated testing, and when should it be used?

    • Answer: Automated testing involves using scripts and tools to execute test cases. It is best suited for repetitive, high-volume, and regression testing.

  12. What is a test environment and why is it important?

    • Answer: A test environment is a setup where testing is conducted. It should replicate the production environment to ensure accurate testing.

  13. How do you handle a situation where there is not enough time for thorough testing?

    • Answer: Prioritize testing based on critical features, perform risk analysis, and focus on high-impact areas. Document the limitations due to time constraints.

  14. What is boundary testing, and why is it important?

    • Answer: Boundary testing checks how an application behaves at the edge of its input boundaries. It helps uncover issues related to boundary values.

  15. Explain the concept of black-box testing.

    • Answer: Black-box testing focuses on testing the application's functionality without knowledge of its internal code structure.

  16. What is the purpose of a traceability matrix?

    • Answer: A traceability matrix links test cases to requirements, ensuring that all requirements are covered by tests.

  17. How do you handle a situation where a critical bug is found just before the product release?

    • Answer: Report the issue immediately, assess its impact, involve stakeholders, and decide whether to postpone the release or apply a hotfix.

  18. What is usability testing?

    • Answer: Usability testing evaluates how user-friendly and intuitive a software application is by observing real users' interactions.

  19. What is the difference between validation and verification in testing?

    • Answer: Verification checks if the product meets specifications, while validation checks if it satisfies the user's needs.

  20. What is a test harness?

    • Answer: A test harness is a set of tools, libraries, and code that supports test case execution, data input, and output validation.

  21. Explain the concept of load testing.

    • Answer: Load testing assesses an application's performance under expected and peak loads to identify bottlenecks and potential issues.

  22. What is the purpose of a bug tracking system?

    • Answer: A bug tracking system helps track and manage defects, allowing teams to prioritize and resolve issues efficiently.

  23. How do you ensure test coverage?

    • Answer: Test coverage is ensured by creating comprehensive test cases that cover all functionalities and requirements.

  24. What is a test strategy, and how is it different from a test plan?

    • Answer: A test strategy outlines the overall approach and goals of testing, while a test plan provides detailed information on test cases and execution.

  25. Explain the concept of test-driven development (TDD).

    • Answer: TDD is a development approach where tests are written before code is implemented, ensuring that the code meets the specified requirements.

  26. What is risk-based testing, and how is it implemented?

    • Answer: Risk-based testing prioritizes testing efforts based on the likelihood and impact of potential failures. It involves risk assessment and allocation of resources accordingly.

  27. What is a test closure report, and when is it prepared?

    • Answer: A test closure report summarizes the testing phase's results, activities, and lessons learned. It is prepared at the end of testing.

  28. Explain the concept of exploratory testing.

    • Answer: Exploratory testing is a dynamic and unscripted testing approach where testers actively explore the application, learning as they test.

  29. How do you ensure that your test cases are maintainable in the long term?

    • Answer: Write clear and well-documented test cases, use a standardized naming convention, and regularly review and update test cases as needed.

  30. What is the role of a QA team in an Agile development process?

    • Answer: In Agile, the QA team collaborates closely with developers, participates in sprint planning, conducts continuous testing, and ensures that the product

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